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Some of the other answers that I think might interest you are:

1.       How much does interior designing cost?

2.      How do I select the right interior designer?

3.      How do I select the right architect in my city?

4.      What are the mistakes to be avoided while going about doing my interiors?

5.      How your office interiors can affect your productivity.

6.      How the right interiors can improve your store sales.

Classification based on the services provided:

Interior Design consultant

One who designs the spaces, gives you lots of drawings and in modern times, pictures from 3D design software or from Internet. Will provide you with all detailed drawings for the false ceiling design, flooring design, furniture placement design, bathroom design, detailed furniture units, electrical placement and wiring, plumbing if needed. Might visit the site (that's your place) to supervise the contractors (if that’s mentioned in your agreement with the designer or might charge a little extra for a visit)

Room Functionality

The primary thing is space or room arranging is thinking about the reason for the room. Prior a specific room was allotted to a particular work, yet today with the changing pattern a room can be multi-functional as well.

Furniture Selection

The arranging includes finish floor mapping and you will have the capacity to check the space. It will help the choice of the correct furniture in view of the room measure. It will likewise give thought regarding situation of the furniture

A Sense of Balance

Appropriate space arranging will acquire a feeling of harmony among magnificence and solace. A space must have a decent feeling of adjust and shading, design, position, interior embellishments, and so forth are generally capable in making the ideal adjust.

Outwardly Appealing

The designing ought to be done such that it looks outwardly engaging. The space arranging assumes a vital part with regards to perception.

Give a Personal Touch

An interior designer while designing the space need to remember the customer's close to home taste. Space arranging reflects what your space will look like and once you clear with the thought, you can simply ahead and design.

Space Modification

It is a vital piece of room arranging. Continuously design a space that gives an additional space to oblige the new thoughts.

Lighting Preferences

Space arranging need to keep in account the light factor and according to the inclination you can design your space and arrangement for light.

Design Consultancy

In Design Consultancy services, the interior designer provides designs and the working drawings only to the client. And the project Management is client’s responsibility.

Turnkey Services (Design + execution)

In Turnkey services, interior designers not only will they provide the designs; they also source materials and furnishings and handle the project management to carry out the necessary plumbing, electrical and carpentry works etc. They supervise the entire process until the curtains have been hung and the sofa has been positioned appropriately.

Have you thought about building the space without the help of a professional interior designer? You can always tell a home was planned out by a professional because of the spacing and layout.

In fact, most designers appreciate inputs from their clients when it comes to the designing the elements of the place.

There are many ways in which an interior designer will save you money.

Once interior designer is adequately informed about your budget, it becomes their responsibility to fit everything into that figure.

Architects and decorators make sure that the wastage of materials procured is minimal, saving you a good 10-15% which would be wasted otherwise.

Interior designer can recommend the best bet for each requirement keeping in mind the price, quality, the design language of your space, durability and feedback from previous clients.

Hiring a designer relieves you of a lot of pressure and effort.

They supervise work of the labour,

Recommend the right materials

The right place to purchase Products and Services,

Coordinate with the labour contractors,

Handle on-site issues and a lot more.

Space Planning,

Selection and Sourcing of Furniture,

Lighting, and Architectural Fixtures, Paint and Finish Selections,

Design and Fabrication of Custom Furniture and Window Treatments,

Selection of Art and Accessories,

Management of the Design Process from Procurement through Installation and more.

Interior Design mainly refers to Designing space efficiently, inside four walls which includes, electrical, plumbing, flooring, ceiling, walls, windows, electronics, furniture, kitchen systems, etc. 

Some of them overlap with architectural services like electrical and plumbing, window design (Since it affects the elevation of the building)

This saves you a lot many hours than you can probably imagine. It not just makes sure that your site gets completed on time, but also that the journey is pleasant for you.

Every project needs contractors for various purposes - Carpenter, Marble, Electrical, Plumbing, False Ceiling experts. There are a lot of these available in Kolkata and every other town or city. But it is difficult for any layman to gauge the expertise and the finishing without actually having worked with them.

An Interior Designer always has a fixed team of contractors who they’ve worked with before. It is important that your wavelength matches with that of the designer and subsequently their contractor team.

Most designers have a team of 3D visualisers and artists. A 3D design is made using a software called 3D Max. It gives you a 3 dimensional view of your interiors. At this stage you can get anything altered or added.

Hiring an interior decorator becomes a lot more important because of this service.

A lot of people forget the importance of free space in any interior design. You may have a 500 square feet space or a 200000 square feet space, if it is not planned scientifically, it will make you claustrophobic and uneasy.

When you have relatively small space, an intelligent design can solve a lot of your issues.

 Visual Merchandising is a field of study that has developed aggressively over the past few years. What you show to your customers, how they feel about your products, what products they end up purchasing is directly affected by the interiors of your showroom/shop/store.

There is a huge list of materials you will have to procure for various places in your home/office. Let's take the example of a bathroom. You will need to procure the tiles, faucets, water-closets, hand showers, health showers, lights, exhaust systems, get the waterproofing materials, mirrors, towel racks, other hardware, storage furniture and a load of other things depending on your requirement.

Classification based on the project they work on :

Commercial (includes malls, shops, stores, multiplexes, Exhibitions etc),

Institutional (includes schools, colleges, training centers)

Residential (Independent houses, flats, farm houses etc)

Offices (though commercial, the design matters change so does the economics)

Office Building

· Institutions

· Industrial Architecture

· Residential Building

· Master Planning

· Affordable Housing

Diffferent works that comes under Interior Designing  are;

1. Civil Work

2. Furnitue

3. Different types of ceiling

4. Flooring work

5. Fixtures

6. All electrical work

7. Home Painting

8. Design of the interior

9. Product and Furniture Planning

10. Paint palettes of interior/exteriors

11. Lights and Décor

12. Product sourcing

13. Studying & evaluation of client’s requirement

14. .Space planning & preparation of floor plans

15. 3D plan & room view or sectional view

16. .Execution of work in totality i.e.civil, plumbing, electrical, p.o.p., false ceiling, carpentary, aluminium, polishing, painting, air-conditioning, interior decoration…

Even when it comes to products, most of the brands and manufacturers inform interior designers about new launches before they reach the market.



Fashion design is the art of applying Design, Aesthetics and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories.

It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion Designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces.

Because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer taste.

Designers conduct research on fashion trends and interpret them for their audience.

Their specific designs are used by manufacturers.

This is the essence of a designer’s role; however, there is variation within this that is determined by the buying and merchandising approach, and product quality; for example, budget retailers will use inexpensive fabrics to interpret trends, but high-end retailers will ensure that the best available fabrics are used.

Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing.

They consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose from.

Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses.

Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.

Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear.





Women's day wear

Practical, comfortable, fashionable

Haute couture, ready-to wear, mass market

Women's evening wear

Glamorous, sophisticated, suited for the occasion

Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market

Women's lingerie

Glamorous, comfortable, washable

Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market

Men's day wear

Casual, practical, comfortable

Tailoring, ready-to-wear, mass market

Men's evening wear

Smart, elegant, formal, apt for the occasion

Tailoring, ready-to-wear, mass market

Kids' wear

Trendy or classy, practical, washable, functional

Ready-to-wear, mass market

Girls' wear

Pretty, colorful, practical, washable, inexpensive

Ready-to-wear, mass market

Teenager girl wear

Colorful, comfortable, glamorous, pretty, cute

Ready-to-wear, mass market

Jeans wear

Unisex, democratic, comfortable, practical, functional

Ready-to-wear, mass market


Trendy, stylish, practical, functional, colorful

Haute couture, ready to-wear, mass market

Sports wear

Comfortable, practical, well-ventilated, washable, functional

Ready-to-wear, mass market


Right weight and color for the season

Ready-to-wear, mass market


Stylish, warm, right weight and color for the season

Ready-to-wear, mass market

Bridal wear

Sumptuous, glamorous, classic

Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market


Striking, fashionable

Haute couture, ready to-wear, mass market

Performance wear

Sporty, dependent on the sport

Ready-to-wear, mass market


Fashion design provide services like :

Trend and color forecasting, 

Market Analysis,

Design concepts and design documentation for manufacturers .

This way the manufacturer can contract out the design requirements rather than maintaining an in-house design team.

Fashion design services providers can either sell the designs outright or license them out on a royalty basis.

If someone is interested in launching a line in footwear, handbags, bedding etc. and are looking to outsource the design work, then a fashion design services provider can help.

When initially launching the business, it might be expensive to launch with many new designs, and thus a licensing option from such a company might save startup cost.

·         fashion designer conceives garment combinations of line, proportion, color, and texture. While sewing and pattern-making skills are beneficial, they are not a pre-requisite of successful fashion design. Most fashion designers are formally trained or apprenticed.

·         technical designer works with the design team and the factories overseas to ensure correct garment construction, appropriate fabric choices and a good fit. The technical designer fits the garment samples on a fit model, and decides which fit and construction changes to make before mass-producing the garment.

·         A pattern maker (also referred as pattern master or pattern cutter) drafts the shapes and sizes of a garment's pieces. This may be done manually with paper and measuring tools or by using a CAD computer software program. Another method is to drape fabric directly onto a dress form. The resulting pattern pieces can be constructed to produce the intended design of the garment and required size. Formal training is usually required for working as a pattern marker.

·         A tailor makes custom designed garments made to the client's measure; especially suits (coat and trousers, jacket and skirt, etc.). Tailors usually undergo an apprenticeship or other formal training.

·         A textile designer designs fabric weaves and prints for clothes and furnishings. Most textile designers are formally trained as apprentices and in school.

·         A stylist co-ordinates the clothes, jewelry, and accessories used in fashion photography and catwalk presentations. A stylist may also work with an individual client to design a coordinated wardrobe of garments. Many stylists are trained in fashion design, the history of fashion, and historical costume, and have a high level of expertise in the current fashion market and future market trends. However, some simply have a strong aesthetic sense for pulling great looks together.

·         A fashion buyer selects and buys the mix of clothing available in retail shops, department stores, and chain stores. Most fashion buyers are trained in business and/or fashion studies.

·         A seamstress  sews ready-to-wear or mass-produced clothing by hand or with a sewing machine, either in a garment shop or as a sewing machine operator in a factory. She (or he) may not have the skills to make (design and cut) the garments, or to fit them on a model.

·         A teacher of fashion design teaches the art and craft of fashion design in art or fashion school.

·         custom clothier makes custom-made garments to order, for a given customer.

·         A dressmaker specializes in custom-made women's clothes: day, cocktail, and evening dresses, business clothes and suits, trousseaus, sports clothes, and lingerie.

·         An illustrator draws and paints clothing designs for commercial use.

·         A fashion forecaster predicts what colours, styles and shapes will be popular ("on-trend") before the garments are on sale in stores.

·         A model wears and displays clothes at fashion shows and in photographs.

·         A fit model aids the fashion designer by wearing and commenting on the fit of clothes during their design and pre-manufacture. Fit models need to be a particular size for this purpose.

·         A fashion journalist writes fashion articles describing the garments presented or fashion trends, for magazines or newspapers.

·         An alterations specialist (alterationist) adjusts the fit of completed garments, usually ready-to-wear, and sometimes re-styles them. NOTE: despite tailors altering garments to fit the client, not all alterationists are tailors.

·         An image consultantwardrobe consultant or fashion advisor recommends styles and colors that are flattering to the client.

  • Product development consulting (construction, costing, etc.)
  • Design Services (Fashion product, cads, textile, printing etc.)
  • Sourcing (fabrics, trim, etc.)
  • Creating tech-packs
  • Pattern making services
  • Sample making services (fit and SMS)
  • Apparel fittings

Duties of Fashion Designers

Fashion designers typically do the following:

  • Study fashion trends and anticipate designs that will appeal to consumers
  • Decide on a theme for a collection
  • Use computer-aided design (CAD) programs to create designs
  • Visit manufacturers or trade shows to get samples of fabric
  • Select fabrics, embellishments, colors, or a style for each garment or accessory
  • Work with other designers or team members to create prototype designs
  • Present design ideas to the creative director or showcase them in fashion or trade shows
  • Market designs to clothing retailers or directly to consumers
  • Oversee the final production of their designs

Larger apparel companies typically employ a team of designers headed by a creative director. Some fashion designers specialize in clothing, footwear, or accessory design; others create designs in all three fashion categories.

For some fashion designers, the first step in creating a new design is researching current fashion and making predictions about future trends using trend reports published by fashion industry trade groups. Other fashion designers create collections from inspirations they get from their regular surroundings, from the cultures they have experienced and places they have visited, or from various art media that inspire them.

After they have an initial idea, fashion designers try out various fabrics and produce a prototype, often with less expensive material than will be used in the final product. They work with models to see how the design will look and adjust the designs as needed.

Although most designers first sketch their designs by hand, many now also sketch their ideas digitally with computer-aided design (CAD) programs. CAD allows designers to see their work on virtual models. They can try out different colors, designs, and shapes while making adjustments more easily than they can when working with real fabric on real people.

Designers produce samples with the actual materials that will be used in manufacturing. Samples that get good responses from fashion editors or trade and fashion shows are then manufactured and sold to consumers.

Although the design process may vary by specialty, in general it takes 6 months from initial design concept to final production, when either the spring or fall collection is released. Some companies may release new designs as frequently as every month, in addition to releasing designs during the spring and fall.

The Internet and e-commerce allow fashion designers to offer their products outside of traditional brick-and-mortar stores. These designers can ship directly to the consumer, without having to invest in a physical shop to showcase their product lines.

The following are examples of types of fashion designers:

Clothing designers create and help produce men's, women's, and children's apparel, including casual wear, suits, sportswear, evening wear, outerwear, maternity clothing, and intimate apparel.

Footwear designers create and help produce different styles of shoes and boots. As new materials, such as lightweight synthetic materials used in shoe soles, become available, footwear designers produce new designs that combine comfort, form, and function.

Accessory designers design and produce items such as handbags, suitcases, belts, scarves, hats, hosiery, and eyewear.

Costume designers design costumes for the performing arts and for motion picture and television productions. They research the styles worn during the period in which the performance takes place, or they work with directors to select and create appropriate attire. They also must stay within the costume budget for the particular production.

Important Qualities for Fashion Designers

Artistic ability. Fashion designers sketch their initial design ideas, which are used later to create prototypes. Designers must be able to express their vision for the design through illustration.

Communication skills. Fashion designers often work in teams throughout the design process and therefore must be effective in communicating with their team members. For example, they may need to give instructions to sewers regarding how a garment should be constructed.

Computer skills. Fashion designers must be able to use computer-aided design (CAD) programs and be familiar with graphics editing software.

Creativity. Fashion designers work with a variety of fabrics, shapes, and colors. Their ideas must be unique, functional, and stylish.

Decisionmaking skills. Because they often work in teams, fashion designers are exposed to many ideas. They must be able to decide which ideas to incorporate into their designs.

Detail oriented. Fashion designers must have a good eye for small differences in color and other details that can make a design successful.

Art Directors

Art directors are responsible for the visual style and images in magazines, newspapers, product packaging, and movie and television productions. They create the overall design of a project and direct others who develop artwork and layouts.

Floral Designers

Floral designers, also called florists, cut and arrange live, dried, and silk flowers and greenery to make decorative displays. They also help customers select flowers, containers, ribbons, and other accessories.

Graphic Designers

Graphic designers create visual concepts, using computer software or by hand, to communicate ideas that inspire, inform, and captivate consumers. They develop the overall layout and production design for various applications such as advertisements, brochures, magazines, and corporate reports.

Industrial Designers

Industrial designers develop the concepts for manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and toys. They combine art, business, and engineering to make products that people use every day. Industrial designers consider the function, aesthetics, production costs, and usability of products when developing new product concepts.

Jewels and Precious Stone & Metal Workers

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers design, construct, adjust, repair, appraise and sell jewelry.


Models pose for artists, photographers, and other clients to help advertise a variety of products, including clothing, cosmetics, food, and appliances. Models also work as fit or fitting models, enabling the manufacturer or fashion designer to achieve the best fit for new styles.

Purchasing Managers, Buyers and Purchasing Agents

Buyers and purchasing agents buy products and services for organizations to use or resell. Purchasing managers oversee the work of buyers and purchasing agents.


Fashion Degree Spot Light : Textile Design


Textile design is one of the design world’s most unique disciplines. Professionals in this field create designs that are used in the production of everything from clothing and furnishings to linoleum flooring and spacecraft insulation. Many of the designs created by textile designers are used repetitively, while others are a one shot deal.


Professional Career Path in Fashion


Here at EXIN we have profiled dozens of professions in fashion design, fashion merchandising and related fields. Each article contains info about the profession, employment and salary trends and data, types of jobs available to someone with training in that profession, and tips on choosing that career path. Below is a handy dandy list of our profession profiles to date.

Textile Artist

Textile artists generate ideas and creative designs for printed textiles, patterned surfaces, knitted textiles, and woven textiles. The designs textile artists create are mass-produced for fabrics used in industries from fashion to packaging. Also called textile designers, textile artists typically choose a specialty such as fashion fabrics, but many work in multiple areas. This makes them more of an asset to companies that produce a wide range of products.

Pattern Makers

Pattern makers work closely with fashion designers and design departments to create an initial rough draft of what the designer has in mind for any given garment. Independent designers that are just starting out might create their own patterns, but if they are established or work for a large company, they usually work with a team of pattern makers. Years ago, pattern makers created sample patterns by hand. Today, they use a variety of advanced techniques and machines to produce samples.

Lingerie Designers

Lingerie designers create intimate wear for women and men. Their designs can lean towards sexy or settle on sporty. Lingerie designers may also design workout gear, socks, nylons, and even shoes.


Shoe Designers

Shoe designers design shoes and boots for casual, evening, or sports wear. Also called footwear designers, shoe designers may also dabble in designing socks, tights, and hose.

 Fashion Illustrators

Fashion illustrators are part fine artist, part fashion designer. They create illustrations for designers, magazines, advertisements, and retailers using everything from pastels and pencils to oils and computers. Fashion illustrators may work for a design studio or retailer, or they may be self-employed.  


 Assistant Fashion Designers

Assistant fashion designer is an entry-level position that can be valuable in terms of gaining solid experience in the industry. This position is a way to get your foot in the door at a design studio, retail chain, or apparel manufacturing company, while earning a good salary and it is a great way to establish a reputation in the industry. Assistant fashion designers typically have the same academic background as established designers, minus the years of experience.

Costume Designers

Costume designers are considered “specialty” fashion designers. They create looks for characters for television, film, and stage productions. Depending on the project, stage designers may be required to create costumes based on strict specifications or they may have the freedom to create from their own vision of what they think the character should wear. Some costume designers revamp existing costumes to fit the production at hand.

Pattern Graders

Pattern graders are responsible for reducing or enlarging a pattern created by a pattern maker in order to produce clothes across a range of sizes (S, M, L, etc) and fits (tall, petite). Pattern graders may use charts, machinery, or computer programs in their work. In general, pattern grading is considered more of a technically oriented career than pattern making or designing.


Showroom Sales Representative

Showroom Sales Representatives work at manufacturers and/or designers offices, where they meet with visiting Fashion Buyers and show off the latest product line. Once they convince the Fashion Buyer to purchase the manufacturer's products, the Showroom Sales Representative is responsible for accurately taking the Fashion Buyers order. They must then make sure that the right quantity of the right product reaches their customers' stores at the right time and in saleable condition. Showroom sales reps should expect to work additional long hours during the four to six market weeks or fashion weeks each year. 

 Product Managers

Product Managers are responsible for overseeing the conceptualization, design, construction, selling and distribution of a manufacturer or designer's products. They are also responsible for overseeing the set-up and implementation of quality assurance protocols for their product. Product Managers usually handle a specific product, or product line. This is a fairly senior position within a manufacturer's organization.

Accessories Designers

An accessories designer is generally responsible for conceptualizing, developing, and creating designs of jewelry pieces, handbags, hats, belts, gloves, scarves and other items that will be used to compliment clothing apparels. Most accessories designer professionals start their careers at home. This makes accessory designing a very attractive field for young aspirants. 

 Fashion Sales Representative

Are you a people's person? Or do you have excellent communication skills? Have you ever dreamed of working in the fashion industry? If your answer to the following questions is YES, then a career in fashion sales is perfect for you! Fashion sales representatives are very well-rounded, adaptable, and flexible. They often work for fashion manufacturers or wholesalers. 

Clothing Pattern Maker

If you are interested in dressmaking, patternmaking, or any tasks that are closely related to clothes and sewing, then you will definitely have a bright future as a clothing pattern maker. Technically, a clothing pattern maker is responsible for developing and creating patterns for a variety of clothing apparels. They conceptualize their patterns through the use of drawings and sketches. The task may require entail grading, detailing, and adjusting garments in various sizes. Today, many dressmakers are now using CAD (Computer Aided Designs) to create pattern models. With the use of computer generated pattern models, clothing pattern maker professionals are able to save time, money and effort. Adjustments can be all done with a click of a button and they can develop multiple patterns at a time.

 Fashion Designer

Fashion designers conceptualize and create new clothing and accessory designs. They analyze fashion trends and work closely with production, marketing, and sales departments to design, produce, and promote a finished, ready-to-wear product for apparel manufacturers, specialty and retail stores, and individual clients. Fashion designers usually specialize in a specific line of clothing such as women, men, kids, maternity, bridal, sportswear, and so on. Generally, a fashion designer assumes a variety of tasks which include creating dresses, suits, shoes, and accessories. In larger fashion houses, individual designers may work in very specialized areas, such as t-shirts, evening dresses, maternity clothes, baby outfits, or denims. They need to undergo formal training from accredited fashion design schools in order to practice as a professional. 

 Fashion Merchandising

Fashion merchandisers on the apparel production side track and analyze market trends, production costs, and previous sales numbers to determine the product direction that the manufacturers will take each season. If high rise jeans are going to become the next big thing, a fashion merchandiser needs to be one of the first in the industry to spot the trend. Fashion merchandising professionals on the retail side are responsible for tracking consumer trends and the latest styles to determine store inventory and to price clothes. In addition to arranging the receiving and storage of apparel, retail merchandisers supervise the creation of visual displays and the overall appearance of the store. They may also be responsible for tracking profits and losses.   Merchandisers are some of the most powerful employees within an apparel company, and they have large bottom-line and personnel management responsibilities.